Word of the Day – “schon”

schonYo yo yo ladies and gentlemen,

I want you to give me an s:      “S”

Gimme a c:                                      “Atlantic”

gimme an h:                                   “H”

gimme an on:                                “ON”

What’s that spell??                      “Paaaaaaaaaaaaaartaay”

Damn right, it spells party so turn up the volume, grab a partner and bust a move…. … … yeah… … … … …

All right, enough. Time to focus on German and our word today is

schon (pron.: shohn… kind of)

Schon is one of the most frequently used words in German in both written and spoken German. I am sure, no matter in which top 100 list you look you will find schon there.
But it is not only one of the most useful but also one of the most confusing ones… just like doch(already discussed here) or eben. It seems to be everywhere but half of the time the dictionary translation doesn’t make any sense at all.
Today we’ll change that… do you hear me, schon? If you’re listening to this… you had it coming, you word you. I know you fancy yourself a tough word, but students of German are tough too. They take on cases for breakfast, man, and today it is ooon… You are sooo going doooown! By the end of this post you’ll be like “Oh no, what just happened… I… I’ve bee fully explained, oh God, I feel so exposed.” That’ll teach you to… oh… oh I… uh I’m sorry, I got a little carried away. I just had to pump up a little I guess because schon has been on my list forever and it seems like this massive unclimbable wall… just check out schon at Pons to see what I mean… so let’s start hiking, shall we?

Before we get to the meanings of schon let’s have a quick look at its origin. There is another word that looks quite similar to schon. The only difference is that it is wearing make-up (check out the brand here). Why is it wearing make up? Because it wants to be beauti… ok I think you got it :).  Schon is closely related to schön many of you probably know as beautiful. But schön is a little broade… wait, I shouldn’t say that about a lady… schön has a little more faceted than just beautiful because it often is used as nice… for instance for a vacation.
Both words, schon and schön, go back to the Indo European root *skeue which meant something like to pay attention or to perceive. And this is in fact also the root of the English word to show. And there is  even a closer relatives of schon in English: a scone (read more  here) which is a piece of bakery.
So… schon originally meant nicely or beautifully. From there it shifted more and more toward satisfyingly which is not so far away from completely and thus we have already reached the first meaning of schon.

schon – already and beyond

The main meaning of schon today is already

  • Ich habe schon gegessen.
  • I already ate.
  • Ich wollte gestern abend noch einkaufen gehen, aber der Supermarkt war schon zu.
  • I wanted to do groceries last night, but the supermarket was already closed.
  • Marie’s son is only 10 months old and can already talk.
  • Maries Sohn ist erst 10 Monate alt und kann schon sprechen.
  • When the waitress came, I had been waiting already for almost an hour.
  • Als die Kellnerin kam, hatte ich schon fast eine Stunde gewartet.
  • “Are you already leaving?”
    “Yes, it is already midnight and I have to get up early tomorrow.”
  • “Gehst du schon?”
    “Ja, es ist schon Mitternacht und ich muss morgen früh raus.

Now what about the negative? So, what if there is a not involved? For the most part English would use not yet to phrase that but in some occasions not already might work as well. Not in German though. Nicht schon never works and will always be noch nicht.

  • If you haven’t already seen the movie, go see it!
  • Wenn ihr den Film noch nicht gesehen habt, dann guckt ihn euch an!

All right….  now, thinking of schon as simply already is totally fine in the every day but actually schon is actually a little bit more broad than already. In one article here, I had an example where I had simply translated schon as already, but then someone pointed out to me in a comment that this doesn’t work in that particular situation. So here is the example…

  • Ich habe vergessen,meinem Chef zu sagen, dass das Meeting morgen schon um 5 anfängt.
  • I forgot to tell my boss that the meaning will start already earlier than expected – at 5.

Already has a notion of accomplishment so there needs to be something that is (being) accomplished.
Schon, just like its counterparts in French or Polish for that matter, is a little broader than already in that it doesn’t always need an accomplished action. Let’s take a short example:

  • Ich gehe morgen schon um 12 nach Hause.

Here, schon indicates that 12 is considered somewhat early either by me, the listener or the general public. So… it is really vague. Here are possible contexts for the sentence:

  • My plan was originally to come at 3 so 12 is kinda early compared to that
  • My company thinks 5 is a good time to go home so 12 is kinda early
  • There is a party tomorrow that starts at 11 so… 12 would be kind of early to leave by party attendance standards

So schon can also express wow, that is kinda early and it totally depends on the context and personal opinions when this is applicable.
And as we’re at that let’s be real nerds and generalize this idea of schon to wow, that’s kinda quite something” and see this as the core meaning of schon for a second.
Now you might be like “But why… I… I really liked the already version just fine… don’t confuse me now”… well, the reason why it is useful to be so nerdy is that it makes schon the direct opposite of erst which expresses “wow, that’s not so much (yet). Here are a few examples…

  • Ich hab’ schon/erst 4 mal angerufen
  • I have called 4 times already.
  • I have called as little as/only 4 times.
  • Ich war um 2 schon/erst zuhause.
  • I was at home at 2 already.
  • It was as late as 2/already 2 when I was home.
  • Ich bin schon/erst 10.
  • I am already 10 (years old).
  • I am only 10.
  • Das Meeting is schon/erst um 11.
  • The meeting is as early as 11.
  • The meeting is not before/as late as 11.

So by changing just one word I can look at the same fact from 2 different points of view and this shows that schon is a little more general than already, with its rather strong notion of accomplishment.
But I think for the daily life it is save to just think of schon as already.
Now, before we get to the other schon (the weird confusing hard to translate filler schon) there are 2 kind of fixed expressions that you really need to know. I am sure they will sound familiar. The first one is schon wieder.

  • Ich musste heute schon wieder Überstunden machen.
  • I had to work extra hours today… AGAIN!
  • “Papa, Ich muss mal.”
    Schon wieder???”
  • “Daddy, I need to pee.”
    AGAIN???”

The dictionary tells us that again means wieder… but in fact wieder alone just expresses the idea that something is reoccurring. The schon adds what is entirely implied by inflection and common knowledge in English… the idea that it is a “kinda earlier than expected”-repetition…. and that is exactly the “wow, that’s kinda early” meaning of schon we … uh … “schon” know.
Great. Now forget the “kinda early” meaning for a second and focus on the already part. The second fixed expression with schon is schon mal… what? Oh, oh yes I know you want mal explained. I will do it in… Malch… …. (get it? It is like with l instead of r)
So… in statements, schon mal pretty much expresses the idea of already. I think the mal makes it sound less completed, less definite… I don’t really know how to express this…

  • Das hab’ ich schon mal gehört.
  • I have heard that before.
  • Das hab’ ich schon gehört.
  • I’ve heard that already (so I know it and there is no need to hear it again)

Now, when we use schon mal in a question the English translation changes. But the idea expressed is actually the same.

  • “Warst du schon mal in Paris?”
    “Ja, war ich schon mal.”
  • “Have you ever been to Paris?”
    “Yes, I’ve been there before/once/already” (I don’t know which one is best)

These questions are incredibly common in German and you should learn it.

  • “Hast du schon mal eine Diät gemacht?”
    “Ne noch nie.”
  • “Have you ever gone on a diet.”
    “No, never.”

So … what we’ve learned so far is that schon means already most of the time, it is a little more broad than already, it is the direct opposite of erst and it is part of 2 incredible handy constructions, namely schon wieder and schon mal. Cool. We have reached base-camp, if you remember my climbing metaphor.
And now let’s talk about all the other schons, the praticle schons, the filler schons or the coloring schons, however you want to call it
… let’s start the real ascend.

Schon – coloring orders

Good news for all native speakers of American English: schon in imperative sentences (orders)  is not going to be a new concept for you because just like already, schon  expresses impatience in those sentences.

  • Sag schon!
  • Say it, already!
  • Gib schon!
  • Gimme that already!

I am not sure as to how strong adding already is in this context but schon can have different intensities and it really comes down to how you say it. You can say either example in a really nice, encouraging way or you can flat out bark it at someone. This use of schon is not the most common one but there is one expression that is used a lot…

  • Ach, komm schon…!
  • Oh come on…!

Komm schon is mostly used in a context of encouraging someone to do something.

  • “Wollen wir ins Kino gehen?”
    “Nee, keinen Bock.”
    “Ach komm schon!”
  • “Should we go see a movie?”
    “Don’t wanne “
    “Oh come on!

It doesn’t really work if you want to doubt someones statement. Just to give you an example

  • “This movie is great.”
    Oh come on, you know it’s not.”
  • “Dieser Film ist toll”
    Ach hör auf, du weisst, dass er Scheiße ist.”

But anyway… so schon in orders can be anything from encouraging to really pushy.

Schon – coloring statements

The Duden, a German reference for word meaning and spelling, list up 8 possible meanings for the coloring-schon (check them out here).  8 is fine but less would be better. And after turning the word around and around in my head for weeks, I finally found a way to verbally capture the essence of what schon does to a statement with just 2 words :

  • dispersing doubt

Now let’s see what we can do with this. The first group of sentences using schon as a color are meant to encourage someone.

  • “Oh God, morgen ist Klausur. Ich bin sooooo nervös.”
    “Du schaffst das schon.”
  • “Oh god, tomorrow is the quizz. I am soooo nervous.”
    Don’t worry, you’ll make it.”
  • “Wo ist denn Marie? Die wollte doch eigentlich um 7 da sein.”
    “Ach die kommt schon noch.”
  • “Where is Marie? She wanted to be here at 7 I think.”
    “Oh she is going to come, don’t worry.”

So, schon adds kind of the same reassuring effect as does don’t worry… it is dispersing doubt. By the way… this schon neatly ties in with its beautiful-origin.

  • Du machst das schon.
  • You’ll do fine/beautifully.

More examples:

  • “Das sieht komisch aus… schreibt man das so?
    “Ja ja, das ist schon richtig so.”
  • “That looks odd… is it spelled like that?”
    Don’t worry it is fine that way.”

Here the schon tries to actively disperse the doubt of the other person. That makes it different from an intensifier like really. Really just intensifies that the speaker thinks it is correct spelling while schon has a subtext of “Let go, chill out, accept”. And yet more examples:

  • “Soll ich dir beim Tragen helfen?”
    “Ne ne, geht schon.”
  • “Do you want me to help you carry that?”
    “No no, don’t worry, it’s ok.
  • (Someone just fell with his bike)
    “Hey alles ok, bist du verletzt?”
    “Nee, geht schon.”
  • “Hey everything all right, are you hurt?”
    “No I’m ok.”

In fact this “geht schon” is something that is used a lot. It does not mean that things are awesome but are “okay enough”.

  • “Und wie is’ der Film?”
    “Naja, geht schon, is’ schon ganz lustig.”
  • “So, how’s the movie?”
    “Oh well, it’s okay I guess, it is kind of funny.”

Here, schon disperses the doubt that the film has passed the okay-threshhold. Nothing more. It doesn’t imply greatness, just asserts “okayness” and leaves room for follow up nit pick.
Now what about examples like this

  • “Wie lief die Prüfung?”
    “War schon okay, aber hätte echt besser sein können.” (spoken German, so that’s why pronouns are missing… don’t copy that)
  • “How was the exam?”
    “It was all right I guess, but it really could have been better.”

How does schon disperse doubt here? Doesn’t it rather raise some? Doesn’t it set up a but just as I guess does? Those are legit questions and when you look up other explanations for schon , including the Duden one, you will read that these schons make the statement sound less convinced than it would be without it and that schon sets up the but. But frankly, I think that is missing the point and creates 2 contradictory meanings (reassuring vs skeptical) where one would be enough. There is a slightly skeptical, doubtful tone to schon here but it is not contradicting the dispersing doubt idea…. why not? Well, I could just bail out and say “Well, to disperse can mean a lot of things including to spread.” But, I also think that despite setting up a but, schon asserts the part before the but. But I honestly think that even in those examples, schon disperses some doubt… either the doubt about the mere “okayness” of the whole thing or the doubt about one particular aspect. Let me prove my point with more examples:

  • “Ich suche einen neuen Job.”
    “Oh, hat dir der alte keine Spaß gemacht?”
    “Das schon, aber das Geld war zu wenig.”
  • “I am looking for a new job.”
    “Oh, did you not like the other one.”
    “No no I did like it ok, but the money wasn’t enough.”

Here, schon disperses the doubt about the fun part while leaving room for a but. Wow… this is a really heavy climb :)… but this was the toughest part. Let’s rest for a second and look back…. oh sooo nice…
The core idea of schon is dispersing doubt. But it can remain very skeptical. and at times it just disperses doubt about one aspect while leaving others open for debate. At time it can sound very skeptical and doubtful in general but at least the part before schon is assured. One last example for this:

  • “Wollen wir was essen?”
    “Auf keinen Fall.”
    “Hast du etwa keinen Hunger?”
    Doch, schon, aber ich mache grade Diät.”
  • “Should we eat something?”
    “No way.”
    “But aren’t you hungry?”
    I am. But I am on a diet right now.”

All right… so we almost got it and there are just a couple of more situations you need to know. Another group of sentences with schon are rhetorical questions.

  • Thomas? Was will der schon machen?
  • Thomas? What is HE gonna do?  as in: (Thomas? He can’t do anything.)
  • Ich könnte sie ja anrufen, aber was bringt das schon?
  • I could call her, but what would THAT accomplish? (as in: Nothing.)
  • Wen interessiert das schon?
  • Who cares?
  • Wer hat schon so viel Zeit?
  • Who on earth has time for that, anyway?

In questions like these, schon implies that the answer to the is in fact: nothing or no one.  In the first example it evaporates doubts that Thomas could do anything of consequence for me. In the second one it leaves no doubt that nothing will be achieved and so on.
Then, there are those statements that are said as a question ( affirmative questions) and schon is often part of those.

  • Du kommst SCHON morgen, oder? (schon gets emphasized here)
  • You WILL come tomorrow, right?
  • Du hast SCHON einen Führerschein, oder?
  • You DO have a license, right?

Again, schon has something to do with dispersing doubt. Without schon, it would be a simple affirmative question.

  • You have a license, right?

Schon adds the notion that I have actually little doubt that what I am saying is true and I would be really surprised if the answer were no. So with schon I just want you affirmation of what I already consider a fact. Now, wait a second… affirmation… wasn’t that the core idea of doch… seeking affirmation? Yes, it is and in these sentences the 2 words are really close. But there is a difference.

  • Du hast doch einen Führerschein, oder?
  • Du hast SCHON einen Führerschein, oder?

The schon sounds waaaaaay more convinced. It almost affirms itself (because it has doubt dispersing powers) while doch is yearning for affirmation because it is just not sure. The doch-version can work when you just feel like you heard once that the person has a license but also if the person says that he or she can’t drive that very day. Let me try to capture that in English.

  • Hey it just occurred to me that you have a license, is that right?
  • But why not? I thought you had a license?!

The schon version could be said by a police officer after upon your saying that you have no license to show. The cop assumes that you don’t have it WITH you.
So… schon is way more sure of itself than doch is in affirmative questions.
And thus we get to the last situation… but wait… didn’t I promise there would be only a couple of situations earlier and not 3? I did, but I used it the German way ;)
So… the last situation in which schon is very common looks like this:

  • Wenn du schon zu spät kommst, dann ruf wenigstens an.
  • If you are late, the at the very least call me.
  • Wenn ich schon eine Liebeskomödie sehen muss, dann bitte eine richtig schmalzige.
  • If, by all means, I really have to watch a romantic comedy, then make it a really schmaltzy one.

So what exactly does the schon do here? It accepts or concedes that there is no way around what is said before and at the same time it sets up a condition of yours.

  • Wenn ich das schon machen muss, dann will ich aber auf jeden Fall das und das.
  • If I really have to do it, and there seems no way around, then I definitely want this and that.

So … does that tie in with the dispersing doubt idea? Well, it kind of does. Schon verbally admits that all your hope of dodging the romantic comedy is lost. You have to watch one, there is NO doubt about that anymore. Not because of schon, but schon expresses it. And by the way

We made it !!!!!

We have reached the top of the mountain. And I am really exhausted adn I am sure you are too. But the good thing is we don’t have to climb down :).
So… here is the quick recap.
Schon comes from schön which means beautiful. Schon often means already and it is the direct opposite of erst, which has no English translation. As a coloring particle schon always disperses some doubt but it can still sound very skeptical. I think this dispersing doubt thing is really the core of the word and it does even kind of work with the already-schon… I am already here is kind of like There is no doubt that I am here. But this is really abstract and if you don’t agree than that’s fine :). I just tried to boil it down as much as possible. So… if you have any questions or suggestions or if my English examples are wrong or if I missed a notion of schon or if you just need to express that you are tired please leave me a comment. I hope you liked it and see you next time.
Oh … and if you need to chill out now… here is a song that I find really relaxing … enjoy

/strong

30 responses to “Word of the Day – “schon”

  1. Ohhh man, that was a tough climb, glad im schon fertig! I just wanted to point out that we (at least in amarica) do infact use already for the third kind of schon you mentiond.

    If were already watching a rom-com (romance comedy) then we might as well have dirty hot s… Make it a schmalzy one!

    By the way, I don’t think schmaltzy is an englisch word. I couldnt find a translation for “schmalzige” or however you spelled it (im too exausted to scroll all the way back up and check the spelling) but i did enter it into my trustes I phone translater and it didnt give me a translation.

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    • Yeah it was tough… I will probably change a few little things to make it more smooth so give it a few days if you want to read it again…
      Thanks a lot for telling me/us about this use of already. I didn’t know that already works in such a context. That is good to know :) and as for “shmaltzy”… I misspelled it and spell checker didn’t mark it so that’s probably why you couldn’t find it…. here is a link:

      http://www.thefreedictionary.com/shmaltz

      German has the word das Schmalz which is “the lard” but also corniness…

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  2. Periannan Chandrasekaran

    Hallo Emmanuel
    Dieses Blog war toll zu lesen.Es raeumt viele Zweifel beim Nutzen der Partikel “schon” aus.
    Vielen Dank.

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  3. Good post, once again! Interesting to read, as schon is one of those words that kind of sneaked into my vocabulary without too much active learning. Just heard it repeated enough, that I had most of the meanings already pretty much figured out, but this makes it even more clear and I can now use it with more confidence :)

    Just one stupid question: Does “Ich glaube/denke schon” fit under one of the mentioned explanations? That’s probably the first meaning for schon that I learned, as that is repeated pretty often :)

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    • Oh my, I totally forgot about “Ich denke schon. ” I wanted to include it because it is indeed very very common but then my mind blanked. anyway…. it is the dispersing doubt meaning and it basically means yes.
      You could also say “Ich denke, ja” but that doesn’t sound as good. I don’t really know why. Maybe because it doesn’t have this proactive “chill out, it’ll be ok” vibe schon has at times, or maybe it is because it is weird to say “I think yes” … I mean you could very well continue with “but I say no”… this doesn’t work with “schon” … so schon is actually more like “I think it is affirmative” if that makes any sense.
      By the way…. looking at the negative we see that we don’t use nein that much there.

      “Ich denke, nein”

      This is okay, but this is way more common:

      “Ich denke nicht”

      So maybe maybe maybe is actually kind of the opposite of “not” in word form :)

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      • I think in English this is translated as “I think so”, but not with emphasis on the “i think” but on the “so”, as in: “Have we finished?”, “I think SO, yes!”. Although they say ‘think’, they are still pretty sure they’re finished… so again, dispersing doubt. This example is very English to disperse doubt, so thought you might like it

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    • Ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh this is driving me nuts now.. I feel like rewriting the whole second part and using “the verbal opposite of not” as the core idea instead of “dispersing doubt”

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  4. Great article, as always. This one will definitely take a couples reads and some practice. As for your question about the negative in English: you will almost never hear someone say “not already” especially in spoken English. It would sound really weird to me. The negative is always made by just tacking “yet” on the end of the sentence (obviously after using “not” with the verb).

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    • Also, I assume the schon mal phrasing is actually a shortened schon einmal, correct? In my lessons we were taught those questions using the phrase schon einmal. The English translations for those questions in spoken English are normally:

      Have you ever been to Paris [before]?
      Yes I have been there [before].
      Or
      No I have never been there [before].

      The “before” is often omitted, especially in spoken English, since it’s implied that you’re talking about the past.

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      • Technically it is correct that mal is a shortened einmal in that context but I can’t imagine that someone would actually ever say “einmal”… that would sound sooooo “stilted” as we say in German.
        Also, I think mal has taken on an own nuance in that situation. It is asking if you have EVER been there and einmal is really sounding a bit like “once”… not as strong as “once” but enough to make this a weird dialog for my ears:

        “Warst du schon einmal in Paris?”
        “Ja, 4 mal.”

        What’s weird here is that the yes is confirming “einmal” which is then contradicted right away by “4 mal” without a comment. There should be something like “actually” or “even” in the answer to make this contradiction disappear.

        “Warst du schon einmal in Paris?”
        “Ja,, sogar schon 4 mal.”

        This is not needed if the question was with just mal.

        “Warst du schon mal in Paris?”
        “Ja 4 mal”

        This is fine.
        I think some people would even write schonmal as one word so…. don’t think of it in terms that einmal is actually correct. That wouldn’t do reality justice… and don’t use einmal unless you really mean once :)

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    • So is not already really only used in situations like the movie one? That would be great because I could shorten the article a bit :)

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      • To me it feels like ‘not already’ has to be part of an if clause, like in the movie example. I actually can’t think of any uses off the top of my head that don’t exist in an if clause to be honest. And regardless, ‘not already’ can be replaced with ‘not…..yet’ in all situations to my knowledge. If I’m wrong, somebody correct me.

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  5. Great article, thank you. Has there already been a post about “immer schon”?

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    • Oh my goodness… this mountain has no top as it seems :)… no there hasn’t been a post and I simply forgot about that situation. But it is interesting because we can demonstrate something about the inflection there… so:

      Er war SCHON immer gut in Mathe, aber das er den Nobelpreis gewinnt, hätte ich nicht gedacht.
      Well, in fact I was always good in math indeed, but I would never have thought, that he would win the nobel-price.

      This is an example for the doubt-dispersing yet skeptical schon… I affirm that he was good in math but I leave open the doubt that he was SOOO good.

      Now the other version:

      Er war schon IMMER gut in Mathe. Deshalb sein Nobelpreis keine Überraschung.
      He has always been good at math. So his nobel price is no surprise.

      It is really difficult to grasp what the schon does and the difference to the same sentence without it is small but I think it confirms that he was ALWAYS good at math. The first schon, the emphasized one, confirms that he was GOOD. But that difference might just be in my head. Anyway, the second schon does something else: that he still is good.

      “Er war immer gut in Mathe”… sounds a little as if he is dead

      I hope that made sense and thanks again for bringing that up! Now I can wait for the next thing I missed :)

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  6. Ach endlich das Wort “schon”. Vielen dank! Das ist genau das worauf ich gewartet habe :) Kannst du bitte auch deine “German Words of the day so far” Sektion updaten? Manche Wörter wie zum Beispiel “schon” und “ganz” fehlen da noch. Danke nochmal :)

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    • Bei “schon immer gut” scheint mir die Frage zu sein, was sich auf was bezieht. “(schon immer) gut” oder “schon (immer gut)”
      Ohne den Hinweis durch die Betonung liest man wahrscheinlich die erste Variante. Die entspricht vielleicht deshalb eher der Umstellung “(immer schon) gut”, bei der immer und gut getrennt werden.

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  7. Many thanks for this; it’s great. Two thoughts: in the sense of ‘schon wieder’ we sometimes say ‘yet again’ in English.
    Also, if you do try to rework it with the ‘opposite of not’ notion, which I found very helpful, you might be helped by these examples:

    Don’t you have a license? (for your doch example)
    You have a license, don’t you? (for your schon example)
    You will come tomorrow, won’t you?

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    • Hey thanks a lot for the examples. They really match the respective vibe of the German ones :)… as for the rework… I am still kind of undecided about whether or not to do it. One part of me says “Do it” and another says “Well, but than certain uses won’t be captures as well” and a third (huuuuge) part has been saying up till now “Procrastinate it. Write new things!”… I think I will eventually do it but it is great to see that people read the comments so the idea of the opposite of no doesn’t get lost :)

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  8. I cannot believe how good your posts are! What a great help! You should write a book like this! I went to a German speaking school in US for 8 years when I was younger (over 30 years ago), so so much of what you say “sounds” right on all of your pages, but I never really knew the reasons why. And since my German has gotten so terribly rusty over the years, sometimes I start to mix up some of the words and get confused as to which one sounds “better” anymore.

    One thing that I have confused (and maybe always did) is the difference between “schon” and “zwar” in setting up the “aber” phrase (NY ist schon eine große Stadt, aber…. vs Er ist zwar ein reicher Mann, aber…) . I never remember hearing “zwar” when I was younger in that way (my teachers were all from the North), so I think I always used “schon” to set up the “but” phrase”. It feels like there is a difference, but I just can’t get at it if there is one. Can you help, please? Thanks!

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    • That is a nice question… I have actually never really realized that schon and zwar can both set up a but. I mean I know they could but I never thought about that there might be a difference… but there is of course:

      First of all, zwar ALWAYS does it. Schon may or may not. So if you want clarity right away… use zwar.

      And then, their scope is different. Zwar sets up a more comprehensive but, a more overall rejecting one… I don’t know how to say it… schon does concede something and then the but shows us a limitation… that was probably totally unclear so let’s use an example:

      - Thomas ist zwar reich, aber er ist nicht glücklich.

      - Thomas ist schon reich, aber nicht so reich wie Bill Gates.

      You can use zwar in the second example and schon in the first but it sounds a little different. Schon is like… “hmmm okay, I admit.. you’re right with that but anyway I can’t fully agree anywayt”
      while zwar totally devalues the first part… like
      “Yeah… that is true but it does not matter at all for what we are talking about.”

      - New York ist zwar eine schöne Stadt aber leben möchte ich da nicht.

      - New York ist schon eine schöne Stadt, aber leben möchte ich dort trotzdem nicht.

      The second example (you would have to put an emphasis on schon to make it set up the but) works much better with a despite in the but part… like… on your my dream city list there are “schön, cheap, small, slow” and New York is schön but fails at the rest.
      Zwar is more like schön wasn’t even on your list but you’re aware that it is on everyone else’s so you have to address it.
      I don’t know if I am making any sense :)… but yeah… schon is less direct and definite than zwar and remember… schon only MAY set up a but but it could mean something else too in that sentence… so I think it is saver to use zwar.
      Hope that helps a bit despite the awful (nonexisting) formatting :)

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  9. Thank you for your obviously well-thought-out response! I’ll have to read it over a few times and then just absorb it. It does make sense to me on a very subconscious level that I can’t explain………………

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  10. Thanks for writing this. Schon is such a difficult word to understand but now I think I understand it a little better. I really do love your blog!

    I wonder if you could help with this sentence? “Es ist schon zu lange her, seitdem ich hier war” which I would translate to “It has been too long since I was here”. What does schon do in this sentence? It doesn’t seem to be dispelling doubt and it doesn’t make much sense if it is translated as “already”….
    Also I think “Es hat zu lange gewesen, seitdem ich hier war” is wrong, but why?

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    • That is the part of “schon” that to me feels like “already” but to an English native speaker doesn’t. The idea is the same as in “It’s already 10 years “… just replace the precise time measure with the vague “too long” and you’re there. Like…. at some point before it wasn’t too long yet , if that makes sense :)

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  11. The second example of “Schon” (already & beyond) at the top of the page is missing the last word, isn’t it? …. geschlossen

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    • Nope… “zu” is the last word :). It is the other way to say “closed/shut”

      - Ich mache die Tür zu.

      - Der Supermarkt ist zu.

      In spoken, “zu” is MUCH more common, so I used that.

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  12. Well I was listening to this song by Coldplay, named ‘Magic’. I’ll take an excerpt out of this song,
    “Do you believe in magic?
    Yes I do!”
    Now can we use ‘schon’ for the second line? :)

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    • Not really… the “yes” is rather strong and not integrated into the sentence as a “nicht” would be. So I would definitely use “ja” here. A schon-version could look like this…

      - Do you believe in magic?
      - Ich glaube schon. (I think I do)

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