German Prefixes Explained- “um”

um-german-prefix-pictureHello everyone,

and welcome to another episode of German Prefixes Explained. Today we’ll have a look one of the easier ones:

um (pron.: oom)

Um  is pretty special because it is the o…aw…. awwwwwwwww look… all the other prefixes are making sad faces right now…my god, so cute… hey, don’t be sad okay , of course you guys are ALL special. Everyone loves you okay??… oh great, now they’re smiling again. Sweet. So…
The um-prefix is special in that it is pretty much the only one where we can’t say whether it separates. Ein- always separates. Ver- never does. Sure, there are prefixes like über that usually don’t separate but sometimes they do… but for um there isn’t even a tendency. It is almost Fifty fifty. And in fact, there are many many verbs of which there are 2 versions with um… one where it splits and one where it doesn’t.

  • Ich umfahre den Zaun.
  • Ich fahre den Zaun um.

Just to make sure… the meanings of the 2 sentences are of course not the same :).But before we get to that let’s have a quick look at the origins of um.

The origin of um

The word is actually quite closely related to the word by. Now you may say, “hmmmmmmmmmmmmm”. And that is a legitimate point.
They don’t even have a letter in common. But the truth is that both come from the same really old root… ambhi …  just eaten from different ends.
Anyway… ambhi is an old Indo-European word that probably had the meaning of around. With a meaning shifted a bit toward “from both sides” ambi is still part of modern day English in words like ambidextrous

  • “Wow, you can write with your right AND with your left hand??”
    “Yes, I’m ambidextrous.”

or ambiversion 

  • “Sometimes I like to go out and make friends and sometimes I’d like to stay at home alone and be quiet.”
    “Your ambiversion sickens me. You should see a psychiatrist”

or Bambi.

  • “Well… what’s the matter with them?” “Why are they actin’ that way?”
    “Hihi… don’t you know?? They’re twitterpated.”

Where were we… uh yeah right. So by and um both come from ambi. You see… speakers of all times have mumbled and the German tribes have always been among the greatest (their old mastery still shines through in the English of Texas). So they found 2 ways to mumble the word ambi. In one way, they swallowed the am-part thus creating the English word by and the German word bei which both means something more or less along the lines of near.
But they also created a version in which they mumbled away the second part of ambi… the result was the English ymb which soon disappeared and the German um… which did not disappear. Quite not, I might say.
So … this um kept the original idea of around and that is the very core of it today…. together with all those other ideas the word has taken on. But I don’t want to talk too much about the stand alone um so let’s focus on the prefix now.

Um as a prefix – the 2 essential ideas

We’ve learned that um can be a separable as wall as a non separable prefix… often for the same basic verb. (If you don’t know yet what separable prefix means in context of German … please read this first)
From now on the non-separable one shall be in green and the other one in pink… I mean blue.
Also, as is the case with all non separable verbs, the strong stress will be on the first syllable of the basic verb. With separable verbs this stress will be on the prefix.

  • umfahren – (say : umFAAAHren)
  • umfahren – (say: UMMMfahren

So when you see green… it is NOT stressed, when you see blue… then it is. The rhythm and feel is really pretty different and you train a bit and get a feel for it. A great approach is to over-exaggerate … do it as extreme as you can and even if you think it is ridiculous… it probably is just perfect. I am not kidding. Trust me. Be extreme. Here is how it would be as just a rhythm.

  • dit-DUUNNN-
  • DUUUN-ditdinn

So… whenever there are 2 verbs that look the same… they sure do not sound the same :). You really have to make the stress very very strong and almost mumble the rest. That is how German sounds.
Now let’s get to  the ideas of these ums and fortunately, those can be distinguished rather well…

  • The non-separable um pretty much always means around in sense of out of the regular path or following a curved trajectory in order to get around something.
  • The other um is not as easy to describe. Possible translations are over, around or elsewhere… so this isn’t of much help. Let’s put it this way. It always has a pretty direct effect on something which will be altered in some way.

Um as a prefix – examples

And now let’s see what we can do with that…. and the first word is… surprise surprise… umfahren.

  • Ich umfahre den Zaun.
  • I drive around the fence.
  • Ich fahre den Zaun um.
  • I run the fence over.

Works pretty well, I think. In the first version we are driving our car on a path that will get us around the fence. Fence isn’t really directly affected by this.
This is different in the second example. The fence certainly felt something there. We did something driving related with the fence that altered the fence in a way…
Similar words to the first version are basically all the movements you can think of. You can umgehen, umschwimmen, umlaufen, umspringen or even umtanzen something… just be aware that this around-um doesn’t necessarily always imply that you do it because you want to avoid the thing you are moving around. For umfahren it does very often. And for umgehen, to avoid is actually a good translation (read more on the various combinations of gehen and um here)
But for example you can umtanzen a fire because you want to worship the fire-god. So keep in mind… this non-separable um really  just means around… maybe because you want to avoid something but maybe you have other reasons to move around it.
As for the second umfahren, the one that was translated as  to run over, there are other verbs with the same idea of over too… for instance umwerfen (throw over), umkippen  (tip over) or even umfallen.

  • Mist. Meine Vase ist umgefallen.
  • Crap. My vase fell over.

Now, let’s say on my shelf there is vase. Under that shelf is a table on which there is sitting a small ballerina made from the finest of all glasses. The vase is right above that little figurine. Now if my vase were really really considerate it would maybe try to take up some spin while slipping off the shelf so that it could then fall on a curved path around that glass-sculpture… then I could also say this:

  • Meine Vase hat meine Glasfigur umfallen.
  • My vase fell around my glass figurine.

But I don’t have a vase on a shelf so that is pure hypothetical.
All right…  now I think it’s time to take a new basic verb  and add um to it: umstellen. Of course there are both versions so let’s see what we can learn there.

  • Die Polizei hat das Haus umstellt.
  • The police has surrounded the building.
  • Ich habe meinen Tisch umgestellt.
  • I have put my table elsewhere/I have altered the positioning of my table.

The first version is a good example for an around where avoiding is not the point. But still it is a quite clear and rather narrow concept I’d say. The police has put stuff around house (their cars and themselves). Also, the house is not directly affected by that.

The other umstellen is not well translated using over this time. Clearly what I do has an effect on table. And something of table will be altered…. the table’s being put if you will… So… this um is really hard to translate as all it does really is express this idea of modification or alteration. I put the table (stellen) thus altering how it was put before, if that makes sense
There are many many verbs with this kind of alter-umumschalten for instance.

  • Diese Sendung ist langweilig. Schalt mal um!
  • This show is boring. Alter the switch-configuration (lit…. kind of) Change the channel.

So you don’t want it switched off… just switched elsewhere.
Another important verb is umziehen….

  • Ich bin seit 1 Jahr nicht umgezogen.
  • I have been staying in the same flat for a year now./ I haven’t moved for a year.
  • Ich hab’ mich seit 1 Jahr nicht umgezogen.
  • I haven’t changed clothes once in a year.

Yep. I know. I’m sorry okay, but it’s not my fault. Umziehen can mean to move into a new flat or to change clothes… please don’t ask me why, it has something to do with ziehen.. whatever the reason may be… the um suggest a change and that is what happens. A change of flat or change of clothes.
Now there is of course the question of how to know whether the separable um implies over or whether it implies change.
Well on an abstract level, over as in to throw over, is just a subset of possible alteration you can do to something. But generally when you have doubts you can look at the verb and see what makes sense.
You see, if you’re super-skilled at throwing things and you have indestructible vases at home you could say:

  • Ich habe meine Vase umgeschmissen.

And mean

  • I’ve “put” my vase elsewhere.

But the verb schmeißento throw highly suggests that if it is um, then it is probably over because little other alterations make sense with vase and throw.
There are a few verbs where both versions (over or just a change of sorts) make sense. One is the already mentioned umziehen.
If you have a fence, a rope and a car you can successfully umziehen /pull down the fence but again I think the context will help you out. So don’t worry too much. Just think of the stressed um as one that will alter or change the object directly in a way and let context do the rest.

Now… I think the ideas of the 2 ums are pretty fleshed out already, so I think it will be enough if we do one more example… and that is going to be umschreiben.

  • Wenn man ein Wort nicht weiß oder es nicht sagen will, kann man es vielleicht umschreiben.
  • If you don’t know a word or you don’t want to say it, maybe you can “talk your way around it“.
  • Wenn ein Kapitel in einem Buch schei… uh nicht ganz so gelungen ist, sollte man es vielleicht umschreiben.
  • If a chapter in a book is shi… uh maybe not the greatest success ever, one probably should rewrite it.

I chose this example because it shows us the around-um in an abstract situation. Umschreiben is really really hard to translate. Dictionaries suggest to paraphrase but that doesn’t feel quite right to me. Umschreiben something is really talking and getting all the information about that something across without directly saying the word. So you say everything around it.
The other umschreiben is one more example for the whole alter-idea of the separable um. The text is not written completely new… it is just changed.

Wrap um.. I mean up

All right… so we have 2 ums. One is not separable and it carries the idea of around.  Oh… before I forget… one important verb we didn’t mention yet is umgeben… which means to surround in sense of nature or places.

  • Der See ist umgeben von einem kleinen Wald.
  • The lake is surrounded by a small forest.

So whatever does the surrounding… in German we say “It gives around”… does not get the Makes-Total-Sense-Award but it is acceptable I guess…
The other um we’ve learned about is separable and it implies change of sorts. What change exactly depends on the basic verb and the context. Is it always change? Well, mostly… in context of clothes it can also mean literally around.

  • Ich muss einen Schal ummachen.
  • I have to wear a scarf. (careful: to wear does rarely translate to ummachen !!! :)

So… literally it means to make around. I am “making” the scarf around my neck. The reason why it is still in the separable group, the alter-group, is that the scarf as well as I are definitely affected by what I am doing. The scarf will be bent or folded if you will… the verbs of the around-group really had almost no direct effect on the thing.
Anyway… so… there are many verbs for which a version with either prefix exists. But for others only one of them makes sense. However, the 2 concepts are so clear and they are actually deeply wired inside a brain of German native speakers. So you can be creative and create new words based on the pattern and people will probably understand you as long as the context helps a little. Let me give you an example… umflirten.

  • “Und? War das ok für dein Date, dass du ein Kind hast?”
    “Hehe… das Thema hab’ ich charmant umflirtet.”
  • “So? Was it all right for your date that you have a kid?”
    “Hehe… I used my charmer and flirted around that topic.”
  • “Und? Wie lief dein Date?”
    “Nich’ so gut?”
    “Warum nicht? Du bist doch sooooo charmant….”
    “Ja, zu charmant. Ich hab’ sie quasi umgeflirtet.”
  • “So? How did your date go?”
    “Not too great.”
    “Why not? Come on, you’re soooooo charming…”
    “Yes, too charming. I basically flirted her down.”

I am sure Germans would quite immediately understand either dialog despite umflirten not officially being a word.

Anyway… there is one last question I’d like to address and that question is:

How do I know which um it is?

But don’t worry. This is not as hard as it may seem. You see, rarely will you see the infinitive form. But in a statement in present tense the separable um will be at the end. In past tense, one ge-form will have a ge in it and one won’t ….

  • Ich habe umgefahren. (I ran over)
  • Ich habe umfahren. (I drove around)

So basically whenever you see umge-something… that is the alter-one. Why? Because verbs with non-separable prefixes don’t get no ge (if you want to read up on that click here).
And then, keep in mind that both version are pronounced entirely differently so you can definitely hear which one it is…

  • stress on um? - the alter-one
  • stress on syllable after um? – the around-one

So… there are really only a few cases where you have to guess but I am pretty positive that the context will help your figure it out :)
So… I think we’re done here. This was our German Prefix Explained with um. If you have any questions or suggestions or cool verbs with um please leave me a comment. I hope you liked it and see you next time.

If you want more prefixes:

31 responses to “German Prefixes Explained- “um”

  1. Would that mean… umSCHLAAAAFen means to sleep around? ;)

    Maria hat mit andere Männer umschlafen.

    Just joking. Wonderful article as always!


    • haha… well, now that you’ve mentioned it I guess I should clear that up…
      the around of the around-um is really the literal around as in “making a circle”. The leisure-around is rum in German and although it is just one letter… it are 2 completely distinct concepts so mixing up um and rum will make what you say hard to understand for a native speaker of German
      Anyway… rum is way more widespread I’d say

      rumhängen – hang around
      rumsitzen – sit around
      rumnerven – suck around/annoy around
      rumchatten- chat around
      rumtwittern – twitter around

      rum is short for herum and herum means …. around…. but I’ll probably do a post on that at some point so I am not gonna say anything further :)


    • Great how you applied the pronunciation advice by the way :D


  2. I just found your blog today. I’ve been learning German since March, and I’m getting to the point where I needed some insightful explanation. I think I’m really going to like this. Thank you!


  3. Great article. Have you done any explanations of “uebrigens” and/or “allerdings?” These two words confuse the heck out of me and you hear them all the time. Danke!


  4. One verb that always seemed a bit strange to me is umbringen (to kill). Is there a rationale for the meaning of this word?

    Also, love the site.


    • It is not so easy to find information on that but if you’re interested then here you go:

      It’s what the brothers Grimm thought about it.
      It seems that umbringen used to mean more than that and it was used in different domains (field work, wood work)… maybe with a common core of “bring away/somewhere else”. This way it was used in sense of punishment and soon todays started to gain more and more ground… hope that helps… I didn’t read the full source. Just skimmed through. It is hard to read old German :)


  5. so herum is the same as rum???


  6. ohh, haha, remove these comments, I just saw that you added that at the end of your comment:)


  7. Ist das Wort umspielen trennbares oder nein? z.b. Wir umspielen etwas oder Wir spielen etwas um?


    • Also das ort ist eigentlich untrennbar… also umSPIElen

      zum Beispiel könnte man sagen:

      – Die Geige umspielt die Bassharmonie.
      – The violin is playing “around” the harmony of the base.

      Theoretically you could also use a separable umspielen… although I am not 100% sure whether everyone would understand the following:

      – Wir haben die Vase umgespielt. :)


  8. Yes i think it makes sense, Played around with the Vase to change the flower arrangement or some thing like that..


    • oh :9… that is actually not what I meant… that would be rumspielen… be careful with this kind of “around”. It is always “rum”. The German um-version (if weakly linked) really quite literally means “around” as in “in a circle”.

      And also, what I meant is using the separable um, which does not really mean around at all … remember, that was the alter-one. UMspielen is not a real word, anyway. Kids could say it when they play soccer inside thereby kicking over the vase… then they kind of have umgespielt the vase. It words like umwerfen, umfahren, umfallen… um carries the same idea there… hope that makes sense now :)


  9. Nice article, I’m living since 2 years in Germany, and even had some courses, and can speak a bit, but I had no idea about the um :)
    So I will continue reading.

    Surprisingly, umziehen is quiet similar in Hungarian, clothes sense = öltözni, moving = költözni (one letter difference)


    • Oh that’s interesting… is that a coincidence or are the words öltözni and költozni related in a way. And if so, does the letter k always add a nuance to a verb? Like a German prefix :)


  10. Hello, dude!
    First, I’d like to tell you it was an awesome work. I read this text when you posted it and I’m reading it again today just to fix the concepts. It turns out that I have a doubt about the UMschreiben. As you said, it implies a change, and this change is a ‘making-it-again’ change. So, I could say something like: “Dies Buch ist sehr gut! Deshalb möchte ich es umlesen.”? If I can do it, how do I differentiate between ‘read it again’ and ‘continue to read it’. Should I use in the last example “wieder lesen”? If it’s not how it works, so when should I use ‘um’ and when should I use ‘wieder’?

    Thank you!


    • Well, the focus is on the change… so after the “rewrite” it is not exactly the same text… maybe you changed a chapter… maybe you changed the tense, maybe you changed some plot points. “UMschreiben” is really about changing an existing text.
      So… there is no “UMlesen”, and I find it really hard to apply the change-idea here so as to make it work technically :)… as for “umLESen”… well, this doesn’t exist either but here it is easier to assign a meaning to it… maybe you have a picture and there is text around it then you could maybe say “umLESen” but… not really ;).
      So… now how to say “read again”… one option is the infamous “noch mal”

      – Ich will das Buch noch mal lesen.

      This focusses on the repetition and it implies that it is not so long ago that you have read it for the first time… maybe you want to read it again, because it was tough stuff.
      Then you can use “mal wieder”

      – Ich will das Buch mal wieder lesen.

      The focus here is that you think it could be cool to read it again… maybe because you haven’t read it in a while but you have good memories of it.
      And then finally you can just use “wieder”

      – Ich will das Buch wieder lesen.

      This is weird to me… it sounds like you are currently not not able to read the book and you yearn for the ability. This version is rare and I can’t really think of a context in which it would be the best choice.

      And then we have “continue reading”… there is a verb for this in German: weiterlesen.

      – Ich will das Buch weiterlesen. or in spken if you say it in context of a short term disturbance of your reading (your flatmate going on your nervs)

      – Ich will weiter das Buch lesen.

      So… bottom line… the separable “um” does not imply repetition. It implies some sort of change. And in case of “UMschreiben” of course you need to open the document again and type … hope that helps, if not please keep asking… oh and in case I have some formulations in my post that are easy to misunderstand, please let me know :D


      • Well, now I realize the mistakes in my thought. Thanks for explaining me!


      • Hey there; just found out about your lovely blog. I started learning German two months ago (using ASSIMIL) and I love all those crazy details; the humor you add certainly is of a great help to keep away from depression though! So thanks a lot for your time. Also, UMlesen probably makes sense in quantum mechanics, where reading the state of a qbit (or electron) collapses its probabilistic state to a deterministic one, hence dramatically changes the thing being read. :-)

        Oh, and I came here to find out about “um etwas bitten” — I couldn’t understand what was the meaning of that “um” in a sentence a German friend of mine translated: “Ich glaube dass du nicht getan hast um was ich dich gebeten habe”/”Ich glaube dass du dass worum ich dich gebeten habe nicht getan hast”, the um/worum really perplexed me. I’m still in the dark, but will patiently wait for a forthcoming article about that :-).


        • Wow.. so your remark about quantum physics totally makes sense and I went to Google to check whether there was something like this and I did find something:

          Am Ribosom findet das Umlesen einer mRNA [...] in ein Protein statt.

          So they decode the DNA-Sequence and pick the amino-acids to build the chain… anyway… so I was wrong and “UMlesen” does exist :)
          And it even has another meaning and this is one I totally missed in the post.

          – Ich schaue/gucke/höre/sehe mich um.

          That means something like “I’ll keep my eyes/ears open”. It needs the self reference so I guess it makes some sense with alteration in that you alter your position but anyway… these verbs are actually quite common… “Ich schau mich grad nach einem neuen Auto um”… it is not really as intense and focused as “searching” but it is similar.
          So… there are those verbs and then people use the same idea to build UMlesen… which is “to read around” in a certain field.

          – Ich les’ mich um.

          That is the equivalent of “Ich schau’ mich um” in the text based online world. So they read here and read there thus gathering information… so yeah… thanks for your comment. I totally forgot the umschauen etc. thing.

          As for “bitten”… the short answer is:
          “Well, um is just the preposition that happened to be the one that works with bitten… could have been just as well “für” or “nach”.
          I can only speculate why it is “um” and maybe it is because “bitten” might come from a word that means “to bend”…. so you bend your back while you “bitten”… and bending works well with “around”… in a very abstract way you bend your back around the thing you’re asking for… hence “um”. But this is pure speculation. I have no source on that and it really might just be a coincidence :)


  11. Vielen Dank, das war sehr deskriptiv! Here`s how I now make sense of the two different ums and herum:

    Die Minderheit X umbevölkert die Stadt Y = Parallelgesellschaft

    Die Minderheit X bevölkert die Stadt Y um = Schmelztiegel

    Die Minderheit X bevölkert die Welt herum = Diaspora

    Geht das?


    • ähhm… neee… Ich weiß nicht, was “umbevölkern” heißt. Das Wort gibt es nicht und auch nicht wirklich die Kombi” bevölkern um”. Das einzige, was ich mir vorstellen könnte, wäre, “change the population” so wie “everyone out, everyone new in”… “bevölkern” alleine heißt “to populate” und ist funktional “to inflict peoples on something” … was hast du denn versucht zu sagen?


  12. Hmm, das, was ich da zu sagen versucht habe, ist kein spezifisches Wort, sondern eine Idee.

    Parallelgesellschaften tragen sich zu, wenn bestimmte Gruppen jeglichen Kontakt mit den anderen Bewohnern einer Stadt umgehen- vielleicht wegen physikalischem oder kulturellem Distanz. In gewisser Hinsicht befinden sich diese Leute technisch oder abstrakt aus dem Stadtkreis. Sie umwohnen(?) oder umresidieren(?) die Stadt, auf die sie keine direkte Wirkung haben. (Umgehung durch das Wohnen)

    Wenn bestimmte Gruppen jedoch der Stadt eine Änderung durch Interaktionen beibringen, haben wir das Schmelztiegel-Beispiel, das man in vielen US-Städten bemerken kann. Also würden diese Leute in diesem Fall die Stadt umgewohnt(?) oder umresidiert(?) haben. (Änderung durch das Wohnen)

    So I do not know if my explanation in German made any sense, but I`m afraid I cannot do a much better job in English (perhaps except for fewer grammatical errors) because I do not have the words for what I`m experimenting to describe.


    • Okay, now I get what you mean :)… nice thinking! Also…

      Das erste “umwohnen” würde ich strikt lokal interpretieren, wenn ich es lesen würde.

      – Sie umwohnen die Stadt.
      – SIe haben die Stadt umwohnt.

      Das sind für mich die Leute in den Suburbs. Ich habe überlegt, aber ich glaube es gibt keinen Weg, die Paralellgeselltschaftsidee mittels “wohnen” zu kommunizieren. Nicht, dass es keinen Sinn machen würde… es ist einfach so abstrakt, dass man nicht drauf käme (ich zumindest nicht)… man könnte sagen, die Gesellschaften “wohnen aneinander vorbei”… oder “sie wohnen zwar offiziell in Berlin, aber sie wohnen nicht in derselben Stadt.”

      Die zweite Idee macht Sinn und ich würde sie wohl auch mit etwas KOntext drumrum verstehen. Allerdings ist auch das wieder sehr abstrakt. Hier gibt es halt Wörter wie “prägen”, “umgestalten”, “beeinflussen” und so… aber rein technisch gesehen funktioniert es. Und “umgewohnt” ist technisch auch richtig :).

      Hier mal ein paar Korrekturen:

      – “sich zutragen” ist mehr für punktuelle Ereignisse und auch etwas literarisch… entweder “entstehen” oder “liegen vor” (sehr technisch)

      – es ist “die Distanz” also “physikalischer und kultureller”

      – “aus dem Stadtkreis”… “aus” ist immer gerichtet… es redet über “woher/wohin” aber nie über “wo?”… das, was du brauchst, ist “ausserhalb des”

      Aber das war’s auch schon. Dein Deutsch ist wirklich beeindruckend gut. C1?! Die Satzstrukturen, die du verwendest (Relativsätze, “zu sagen versucht habe”), sind zum Teil extrem schwer aber es passt alles und es klingt fast nie komisch. Das hätte man fast so drucken können. Echt wirklich beeindruckend. Glückwunsch!!!


      • Vielen Dank fürs Feedback! Deine Vorschläge finde ich sehr gut. Sie können sich außerdem als extrem nützlich erweisen, falls sie mir im mündlichen Teil meiner bald kommenden C1-Prüfung Fragen rund um die Themen Integration, Außenbezirke oder Single-Haushalt stellen würden.

        Nochmals vielen dank für deine freundlichen Worte. Außerhalb des Klassenraums des Goethe-Instituts habe ich wenigere Möglichkeiten, die deutsche Sprache zu “erwerben” und was den Erwerb von Deutsch geht, betrachte ich dein Blog als die Heilige Schrift :d (Ich hoffe, dass der letzte Ausdruck da doch mal Sinn macht. Der hat übrigens, wie der Ausdruck das A(lpha) und O(mega), nichts direktes mit der Religion zu tun)


        • angeht*


          • Ha… ich war schon fast am Korrigieren :D… danke für die netten Worte.
            Hier noch ein paar mehr Vokabeln, die zu dem Thema passen könnten:

            – Verdrängung
            – Gentrifizierung
            – Mietsteigerung
            – Verslummung (für Deutsche Städte vielleicht etwas extrem aber für Detroit nicht)
            – Eigentumswohnung
            – Mietpreisbremse (wird hier grad drüber diskutiert, ob der Staat mal ein bisschen regulieren soll)

            Viel Erfolg und lass mich wissen, wie es gelaufen ist …


          • Hallo Emanuel. Ich wollte dir nur Bescheid geben, dass ich die Prüfung bestanden habe (ich habe sie letzte Woche gemacht). Die Themen der mündlichen Aufgaben waren die Förderung von Lesen unter den Jugendlichen und die Universitätsstädte. Vielen Dank noch einmal- dein Blog macht echt Spaß!


          • Hey super :)! Herzlichen Glückwunsch. Und gutes Thema… zumindest im Vergleich zu was ich so in einem TestDaf-Vorbereitungsbuch gesehen habe. Alles so trocken. Da muss man echt labern können :)


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